A-Team [see also: ‘Team A’]: Inner members of the Intelligence community responsible for interpreting information with respect to international political events. Team A was kept as an entity distinct from Team B, a corresponding membership at the White House and Pentagon. While the exact intent of the separation of Team A and Team B is a classified matter, both teams play a vital role in establishing the hierarchy of strategic decision making.
A-type deception: purposeful intent to increase ambiguity by surrounding a target with irrelevant information; confusion based on a lack of certainty. Its aim is to keep the adversary unsure of one’s true intentions, especially an adversary who has initially guessed right. A number of alternatives are developed for the target’s consumption, built on misinformation that is both plausible and sufficiently significant to cause the target to expend resources to cover them. It may be that Saddam Hussein felt that the U.S. was conducting A-type deception on him as he prepared Iraq to invade Kuwait. “The problem of deterring Saddam, even assuming that Western intelligence assessed an attack on Kuwait as a distinct probability, subsequently became mired in diplomatic ambiguity, with the U.S. trying to stand firm and yet at the same time weakening its tough stance by issuing curiously contradictory ‘clarifications.’ For example, when the U.S. moved KC-135 tanker aircraft and ships to the Gulf on 21 July ‘to lay down a marker for Saddam Hussein,’ in the words of the Pentagon, an aide to the Secretary to the Navy rushed to ‘clarify the situation’ by telling the press that the ships were not on alert. On 24 July, when the Pentagon stated that the ‘U.S. was committed to…supporting the self-defense of our friends in the Gulf,’ officials specifically refused to confirm whether the U.S. would go to Kuwait’s aid if Kuwait were attacked.” [See also: M-type deception; active deception; denial and deception; passive deception.]
accelerator: any event, action or decision by an influential person that becomes a catalyst to an impending threat scenario. For example, as cited in one report, “Any new discriminatory laws or restrictive actions imposed by the dictatorial government are accelerators that will ultimately bring down the government.”
access: In counterintelligence and intelligence use, a. a way or means of approach to identify a target; or b. exploitable proximity to or ability to approach an individual, facility, or information that enables target to carry out the intended mission.
Active deception: measures designed to mislead by causing an object or situation to seem threatening when a threat does not exist. Normally involves a calculated policy of disclosing half-truths supported by appropriate “proof” signals or other material evidence. The intelligence network of the deceived must pick up this information. The deceived must “discover” the evidence himself; he must work hard for it to be more convinced of its authenticity and importance. (Frequently, information that is easily obtained appears to be less credible and of doubtful value.)6 For example, during World War I Great Britain used active deception in the form of dummy airfields and flare paths. These phony installations had a dual purpose of attracting German strafing and bombing raids and consequently diverting the enemy airplanes away from the real Allied airfields. Additionally, these bogus installations also exaggerated the number of operational airfields, which deceived the enemy about Allied military strength in the sector. [See also: A-type deception; denial and deception; passive deception.]
acoustic intelligence: Intelligence derived from the collection and processing of acoustic phenomena. Also called ACINT.
activation: Order to active duty (other than for training) in the federal service. i.e. – when an asset is ‘activated’.
Adaptive Planning and Execution system: A Department of Defense system of joint policies, processes, procedures, and reporting structures, supported by communications and information technology, that is used by the joint planning and execution community to monitor, plan, and execute mobilization, deployment, employment, sustainment, redeployment, and demobilization activities associated with joint operations. Also called APEX system.
administrative contracting officer: Contracting officer whose primary duties involve contract administration. Also called ACO. See also contracting officer; procuring contracting officer.
administrative control : Direction or exercise of authority over subordinate or other organizations in respect to administration and support, including organization of Service forces, control of resources and equipment, personnel management, unit logistics, individual and unit training, readiness, mobilization, demobilization, discipline, and other matters not included in the operational missions of the subordinate or other organizations. Also called ADCON.
advanced geospatial intelligence : Refers to the technical, geospatial, and intelligence information derived through interpretation or analysis using advanced processing of all data collected by imagery or imagery-related collection systems. Also known as imagery-derived measurement and signature intelligence. Also called AGI.
advanced operations base: In special operations, a small temporary base established near or within a joint special operations area to command, control, and/or support training or tactical operations. Facilities are normally austere. The base may be ashore or afloat. If ashore, it may include an airfield or unimproved airstrip, a pier, or an anchorage. An advanced operations base is normally controlled and/or supported by a main operations base or a forward operations base. Also called AOB. See also forward operations base; main operations base.
advance force: A temporary organization within the amphibious task force which precedes the main body to the objective area, for preparing the objective for the main assault by conducting such operations as reconnaissance, seizure of supporting positions, mine countermeasures, preliminary bombardment, underwater demolitions, and air support.
adversary template: A model based on an adversary’s known or postulated preferred methods of operation illustrating the disposition and activity of adversary forces and assets conducting a particular operation unconstrained by the impact of the operational environment.
aeromedical evacuation control team: A core team assigned to a component-numbered air force, Air Force air and space operations center, or air mobility division that provides command and control of assigned aeromedical evacuation forces. Also called AECT. See also aeromedical evacuation; air mobility division.
airborne early warning: The detection of enemy air or surface units by radar or other equipment carried in an airborne vehicle, and the transmitting of a warning to friendly units. Also called AEW.
airborne early warning and control: (*) Air surveillance and control provided by airborne early warning aircraft which are equipped with search and height-finding radar and communications equipment for controlling weapon systems. Also called AEW & C.
aircraft carrier: A warship designed to support and operate aircraft, engage in attacks on targets afloat or ashore, and engage in sustained operations in support of other forces. Designated as CV or CVN. CVN is nuclear powered.
aircraft loading table: A data sheet used by the airlift commander containing information as to the load that actually goes into each aircraft.
air defense warning conditions: A degree of air raid probability according to the following code. The term air defense region/sector referred to herein may include forces and units afloat and/or deployed to forward areas, as applicable. Air defense warning yellow — attack by hostile aircraft and/or missiles is probable. This means that hostile aircraft and/or missiles are en route toward an air defense region/sector, or unknown aircraft and/or missiles suspected to be hostile are en route toward or are within an air defense region/sector. Air defense warning red — attack by hostile aircraft and/or missiles is imminent or is in progress. This means that hostile aircraft and/or missiles are within an air defense region/sector or are in the immediate vicinity of an air defense region/sector with high probability of entering the region/sector. Air defense warning white — attack by hostile aircraft and/or missiles is improbable. May be called either before or after air defense warning yellow or red. The initial declaration of air defense emergency will automatically establish a condition of air defense warning other than white for purposes of security control of air traffic. Also called ADWCs.
Air Force special operations component: The Air Force component of a joint force special operations component. Also called AFSOC. See also Army special operations component; Navy special operations component.
Air Force special operations detachment — A squadron-size headquarters that could be a composite organization composed of different Air Force special operations assets, normally subordinate to an Air Force special operations component. Also called AFSOD.
Air Force special operations forces — Those Active and Reserve Component Air Force forces designated by the Secretary of Defense that are specifically organized, trained, and equipped to conduct and support special operations. Also called AFSOF.
air intercept control common — A tactical air-to-ground radio frequency, monitored by all air intercept control facilities within an area, that is used as a backup for other discrete tactical control frequencies.
Air Mobility Command: The Air Force component command of the US Transportation
air request net: A high frequency, single sideband, nonsecure net monitored by all tactical air control parties (TACPs) and the air support operations center (ASOC) that allows immediate requests to be transmitted from a TACP at any Army echelon directly to the ASOC for rapid response.
air sovereignty mission: The integrated tasks of surveillance and control, the execution of which enforces a nation’s authority over its territorial airspace.
airspace control authority: The commander designated to assume overall responsibility for the operation of the airspace control system in the airspace control area. Also called ACA. See also airspace control; airspace control area; airspace control system; control; operation.
airspace control order: An order implementing the airspace control plan that provides the details of the approved requests for airspace coordinating measures. It is published either as part of the air tasking order or as a separate document. Also called ACO.
airspace control plan: The document approved by the joint force commander that provides specific planning guidance and procedures for the airspace control system for the joint force operational area. Also called ACP. See also airspace control system; joint force commander.
airspace control sector: A sub-element of the airspace control area, established to facilitate the control of the overall area. Airspace control sector boundaries normally coincide with air defense organization subdivision boundaries. Airspace control sectors are designated in accordance with procedures and guidance contained in the airspace control plan in consideration of Service component, host nation, and multinational airspace control capabilities and requirements. See also airspace control area.
air support operations center: The principal air control agency of the theater air control system responsible for the direction and control of air operations directly supporting the ground combat element. It coordinates air missions requiring integration with other supporting arms and ground forces. It normally collocates with the Army tactical headquarters senior fire support coordination center within the ground combat element. Also called ASOC. See also close air support; operation; tactical air control center.
alert center: a site for the review of all incoming current intelligence information that possesses, or has access to, extensive communications for alerting local personnel. An additional responsibility may include the ability to task appropriate external collection assets within the system. [See also: indications center; warning center; watch center.]
alert fatigue: a condition that exists when a command and its troops are constantly at a state of alert, resulting in their deteriorating readiness for action. When the Israelis launched their sudden attack into Lebanon in 1982, Palestinian surprise was due in part to “alert fatigue” or the “cry-wolf” syndrome. This phenomenon results from the desensitization of an entity’s warning capability because the threatened attack or event did not occur. On possibly as many as four occasions prior to the June attack, Palestinian forces predicted and prepared for the expected Israeli attack. Each time the attack never came. It is not surprising, therefore, that the PLO saw the events in early June as a repeat of previous Israeli saber rattling. Arafat’s presence outside of Lebanon on the day before the attack dramatized this point.” [See also: cry-wolf syndrome.]
alert memorandum: correspondence issued by high-level intelligence officials to policymakers to warn them about developments abroad that may be of major concern to the country’s national security; a memorandum coordinated within the Intelligence Community if time permits.
alert order: 1. A crisis action planning directive from the Secretary of Defense, issued by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, that provides essential guidance for planning and directs the initiation of execution planning for the selected course of action authorized by the Secretary of Defense. 2. A planning directive that provides essential planning guidance, directs the initiation of execution planning after the directing authority approves a military course of action, but does not authorize execution. Also called ALERTORD. See also course of action; execution planning.
all-source intelligence: 1. Intelligence products and/or organizations and activities that incorporate all sources of information, most frequently including human intelligence, imagery intelligence, measurement and signature intelligence, signals intelligence, and open-source data in the production of finished intelligence. 2. In intelligence collection, a phrase that indicates that in the satisfaction of intelligence requirements, all collection, processing, exploitation, and reporting systems and resources are identified for possible use and those most capable are tasked.
analysis: the process of separating intelligence data into distinct, related parts or elements and examining those elements to determine essential parameters or related properties. Often the word “analysis” is incorrectly interchanged with the word “assessment.” To understand the difference one may remember that “analysis is what you know, assessment is what you believe.” [See also: assessment]
analysis and production: In intelligence usage, the conversion of processed information into intelligence through the integration, evaluation, analysis, and interpretation of all source data and the preparation of intelligence products in support of known or anticipated user requirements. See also intelligence process.
antiradiation missile: A missile which homes passively on a radiation source. Also called ARM.
antiterrorism: Defensive measures used to reduce the vulnerability of individuals and property to terrorist acts, to include rapid containment by local military and civilian forces. Also called AT. See also counterterrorism; terrorism.
application: In the intelligence context, the direct extraction and tailoring of information from an existing foundation of intelligence and near real time reporting. It is focused on and meets specific, narrow requirements, normally on demand.
areas of concern: specific issues or incidents within a warning problem that require identifiable attention by the analyst, commander or policymaker.
area command: A command which is composed of those organized elements of one or more of the Armed Services, designated to operate in a specific geographical area, which are placed under a single commander.
Army special operations component — The Army component of a joint force special operations component. Also called ARSOC. See also Air Force special operations component; Navy special operations component.
Army special operations forces — Those Active and Reserve Component Army forces designated by the Secretary of Defense that are specifically organized, trained, and equipped to conduct and support special operations. Also called ARSOF.
assessment: the process of combining all intelligence data into a unified, specific judgment; the result of analysis formed within the context of the intelligence environment. [See also: analysis]
assessment agent: The organization responsible for conducting an assessment of an approved joint publication. Also called AA.
asset: Any resource, person, group, relationship, instrument, installation, or supply at the disposition of an intelligence organization for use in an operational or support role. Often used with a qualifying term such as agent asset or propaganda asset. Commonly used as a euphemism for an assassin.
asset visibility: Provides users with information on the location, movement, status, and identity of units, personnel, equipment, and supplies. It facilitates the capability to act upon that information to improve overall performance of the Department of Defense’s logistics practices. Also called AV.
attack the network operations: Lethal and nonlethal actions and operations against networks conducted continuously and simultaneously at multiple levels (tactical, operational, and strategic) that capitalize on or create key vulnerabilities and disrupt activities to eliminate the enemy’s ability to function in order to enable success of the operation or campaign. Also called AtN operations
authenticator: A symbol or group of symbols, or a series of bits, selected or derived in a prearranged manner and usually inserted at a predetermined point within a message or transmission for the purpose of attesting to the validity of the message or transmission
automated identification technology: A suite of tools for facilitating total asset visibility source data capture and transfer. Automated identification technology includes a variety of devices, such as bar codes, magnetic strips, optical memory cards, and radio frequency tags for marking or “tagging” individual items, multi-packs, equipment, air pallets, or containers, along with the hardware and software required to create the devices, read the information on them, and integrate that information with other logistic information. Also called AIT.
autonomous operation: In air defense, the mode of operation assumed by a unit after it has lost all communications with higher echelons. The unit commander assumes full responsibility for control of weapons and engagement of hostile targets.
B-Team [see also: ‘Team B’]: the governmental counterpart of Team A, consisting primarily of elected officials or paid experts. The Team B reports became the intellectual foundation for the idea of "the window of vulnerability" and of the massive arms buildup that began toward the end of the Carter administration and accelerated under President Ronald Reagan.
ballistic missile early warning system — An electronic system for providing detection and early warning of attack by enemy intercontinental ballistic missiles. Also called BMEWS.
barrage: 1. A prearranged barrier of fires, except that delivered by small arms, designed to protect friendly troops and installations by impeding enemy movements across defensive lines or areas. 2. A type of electronic attack intended for simultaneous jamming over a wide area of frequency spectrum.
base line: 1. (surveying) A surveyed line established with more than usual care, to which surveys are referred for coordination and correlation. 2. (photogrammetry) The line between the principal points of two consecutive vertical air photographs. It is usually measured on one photograph after the principal point of the other has been transferred. 3. (radio navigation systems) The shorter arc of the great circle joining two radio transmitting stations of a navigation system. 4. (triangulation) The side of one of a series of coordinated triangles the length of which is measured with prescribed accuracy and precision and from which lengths of the other triangle sides are obtained by computation.
basic intelligence: the compilation of all available data and information on several subjects of broad interest to policymakers and other members of the Intelligence Community; fundamental, comprehensive, encyclopedic and general reference-type material relating to political, economic, geographic and military structure, resources, capabilities, and vulnerabilities of foreign nations. [See also: ]
Bayesian (decision) analysis: a technique developed by the Reverend Thomas Bayes in 1763, in which he advanced the proposition that subjective probabilities should be combined with frequency probabilities via what has come to be called Bayes’ theorem, a very simple formula using conditional probabilities. According to the formula, the prior probability P (H) of proposition H is revised to posterior probability P (H/D) when the datum D is observed—and P (D/H) AND P (D) are known—as follows:
P (H|D)= P (H)•(P (D|H)
In this formula, P (D/H) is the likelihood of the same information D given that proposition H is true. Even in this simple form, Bayes’ theorem has apparent applications in international relations forecasting.
bootlegging: informal agreements by intelligence officers to share data outside established, formal channels; seen as a practice between analysts to share data by bypassing more formal channels of communication. [See also: stovepipe warning.]
biological agent: A microorganism that causes disease in personnel, plants, or animals or causes the deterioration of materiel. See also biological weapon; chemical agent.
biological hazard : An organism, or substance derived from an organism, that poses a threat to human or animal health. This can include medical waste, samples of a microorganism, virus, or toxin (from a biological source) that can impact human health.
biological warfare: Employment of biological agents to produce casualties in personnel or animals, or damage to plants or materiel; or defense against such employment.
biological weapon: An item of materiel which projects, disperses, or disseminates a biological agent including arthropod vectors. (JP 3-11)
biometric: Measurable physical characteristic or personal behavior trait used to recognize the identity or verify the claimed identity of an individual.
biometrics: The process of recognizing an individual based on measurable anatomical, physiological, and behavioral characteristics.
blister agent: A chemical agent which injures the eyes and lungs, and burns or blisters the skin. Also called vesicant agent.
blood agent: A chemical compound, including the cyanide group, that affects bodily functions by preventing the normal utilization of oxygen by body tissues.
blue force tracking: Employment of techniques to actively or passively identify or track US, allied, or coalition forces for the purpose of providing the combatant commander enhanced situational awareness and reducing fratricide. Also called BFT.
brevity code: A code which provides no security but which has as its sole purpose the
cartridge actuated device: Small explosive devices used to eject stores from launched devices, actuate other explosive systems, or provide initiation for aircrew escape devices. Also called CAD.
CARVER: A special operations forces acronym used throughout the targeting and mission planning cycle to assess mission validity and requirements. The acronym stands for criticality, accessibility, recuperability, vulnerability, effect, and recognizability.
Cassandra: one who prophesies misfortune or disaster. In a warning context, the term refers to anyone who, like Chicken Little, announces that “the sky is falling” when in fact, only very ambiguous indications of a disastrous event actually exist. Concept and name derive from the daughter of King Priam of Troy, a prophetess of evil. [Term is usually capitalized; see also: Pollyanna.]
case: 1. An intelligence operation in its entirety. 2. Record of the development of an intelligence operation, including personnel, modus operandi, and objectives.
chemical agent: A chemical substance which is intended for use in military operations to kill, seriously injure, or incapacitate mainly through its physiological effects. The term excludes riot control agents when used for law enforcement purposes, herbicides, smoke, and flames. See also chemical dose; chemical warfare; riot control agent
chemical agent cumulative action: The building up, within the human body, of small ineffective doses of certain chemical agents to a point where eventual effect is similar to one large dose.
chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear environment — Conditions found in an area resulting from immediate or persisting effects of chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear attacks or unintentional releases. Also called CBRN environment.
chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, or high-yield explosives incident — An emergency resulting from the deliberate or unintentional release of nuclear, biological, radiological, or toxic or poisonous chemical materials, or the detonation of a high-yield explosive. Also called CBRNE incident.
chemical warfare: All aspects of military operations involving the employment of lethal and incapacitating munitions/agents and the warning and protective measures associated with such offensive operations. Since riot control agents and herbicides are not considered to be chemical warfare agents, those two items will be referred to separately or under the broader term “chemical,” which will be used to include all types of chemical munitions/agents collectively. Also called CW. See also chemical agent; chemical dose; chemical weapon; riot control agent.
chronic radiation dose: A dose of ionizing radiation received either continuously or intermittently over a prolonged period of time. A chronic radiation dose may be high enough to cause radiation sickness and death but, if received at a low dose rate, a significant portion of the acute cellular damage may be repaired. See also acute radiation dose; radiation dose; radiation dose rate.
circular intelligence: information that is reported as an unconfirmed fact or assessment that is subsequently repeated in another agency or analyst’s assessment as a true report. The first agency or analyst sees it in someone else’s report and seizes on it as independent proof that his or her own information has been confirmed by another source. For example, prior to the Yom Kippur War in 1973 between Israel and Egypt, circular intelligence was a contributing factor to lull Israeli intelligence into a false sense of security. “When the Israelis saw that the U.S. was not worried by the build-up, they confirmed their earlier judgements. If Washington was unruffled, concluded Mrs. Meir [the Prime Minister of Israel] and her inner policy group on 5 October, then why should they be? It was a classic and vicious example of ‘circular intelligence.’ (Washington was not worried about Egypt’s military buildup because they received intelligence from the Israelis that there was nothing to worry about.) Everyone left the 5 October meetings uneasy and with a feeling that something was wrong.” Egypt attacked the next day. [See also: hugger-mugger.]
clandestine: Any activity or operation sponsored or conducted by governmental departments or agencies with the intent to assure secrecy and concealment
clandestine intelligence collection: The acquisition of protected intelligence information in a way designed to conceal the nature of the operation and protect the source.
clandestine operation: An operation sponsored or conducted by governmental departments or agencies in such a way as to assure secrecy or concealment. A clandestine operation differs from a covert operation in that emphasis is placed on concealment of the operation rather than on concealment of the identity of the sponsor. In special operations, an activity may be both covert and clandestine and may focus equally on operational considerations and intelligence-related activities. See also covert operation; overt operation.
clientitis: overly sympathetic analysis of events in the target state; an unrealistic attempt to understand the motivations and values of the target country’s leaders or major groupings from the perspective of the target. “More than ever before, the State Department cannot afford to have ‘clientitis,’ a malady characterized by undue deference to the potential reactions of other countries. I have long thought the [U.S.] State Department needs an ‘America Desk.’ This Administration will have one — and I’ll be sitting behind it.”
CNN effect: the immediate rise of a real or perceived crisis that sustains public awareness and urges policymakers to take action. The acronym CNN stands for Cable News Network, which has come to symbolize all forms of mass media that focus and magnify a single action, event or decision by publicizing it worldwide. “Resisting the ‘CNN effect’ may be one of the most important requirements of U.S. policymaking in the coming period.” The “CNN effect” of televised images of suffering has generated public demands for action; it has been a key definer especially of humanitarian problems. (Television depicts only poorly the political complexities that produce such suffering, leading to inappropriately narrow or erroneous problem identification.)
cognitive dissonance: the rejection of factual information or reality because it does not conform to previously held beliefs — mostly used by psychologists. “A classic example is the case of ‘Yellow Rain,’ and discovery of lethal toxins in Southeast Asia and Afghanistan in the early 1980s. In spite of the overwhelming weight of confirmatory evidence accumulated over eight years, the findings continue to be challenged and contested, sometimes with offerings of bizarre scientific counter explanations that utterly defy common sense. The extreme reluctance to accept the evidence at face value cannot be attributed simply to the fact that intelligence could never meet the rigorous laboratory standards for evidence. Rather, it must surely lie in the unpleasantness of the implications insofar as they raise doubts about the viability of arms control agreements.”
collection: In intelligence usage, the acquisition of information and the provision of this information to processing elements. See also intelligence process.
collection agency: Any individual, organization, or unit that has access to sources of information and the capability of collecting information from them. See also agency.
collection asset: A collection system, platform, or capability that is supporting, assigned, or attached to a particular commander. See also collection.
collection manager: An individual with responsibility for the timely and efficient tasking of organic collection resources and the development of requirements for theater and national assets that could satisfy specific information needs in support of the mission. Also called CM. See also collection; collection management authority.
collection plan: A plan for collecting information from all available sources to meet intelligence requirements and for transforming those requirements into orders and requests to appropriate agencies. See also information requirements; intelligence process.
collection requirements management: The authoritative development and control of collection, processing, exploitation, and/or reporting requirements that normally result in either the direct tasking of assets over which the collection manager has authority, or the generation of tasking requests to collection management authorities at a higher, lower, or lateral echelon to accomplish the collection mission. Also called CRM. See also collection; collection management; collection operations management.
combatant command (command authority) COCOM: Nontransferable command authority established by Title 10 (“Armed Forces”), United States Code, Section 164, exercised only by commanders of unified or specified combatant commands unless otherwise directed by the President or the Secretary of Defense. Combatant command (command authority) cannot be delegated and is the authority of a combatant commander to perform those functions of command over assigned forces involving organizing and employing commands and forces, assigning tasks, designating objectives, and giving authoritative direction over all aspects of military operations, joint training, and logistics necessary to accomplish the missions assigned to the command. Combatant command (command authority) should be exercised through the commanders of subordinate organizations. Normally this authority is exercised through subordinate joint force commanders and Service and/or functional component commanders. Combatant command (command authority) provides full authority to organize and employ commands and forces as the combatant commander considers necessary to accomplish assigned missions. Operational control is inherent in combatant command (command authority). Also called COCOM. See also combatant command; combatant commander; operational control; tactical control.
combat information: unevaluated data
combat intelligence: knowledge of the weather, the enemy, and geographical features required by a unit in the planning and conduct of combat operations. [See also: tactical intelligence]
combating terrorism: Actions, including antiterrorism and counterterrorism, taken to oppose terrorism throughout the entire threat spectrum. Also called CbT. See also antiterrorism; counterterrorism.
complaint-type investigation: A counterintelligence investigation in which sabotage, espionage, treason, sedition, subversive activity, or disaffection is suspected.
complex emergency: a natural or manmade disaster with economic, social and political dimensions. A humanitarian crisis in a country, region, or society where there is a total or considerable breakdown of authority resulting from internal or external conflict, and which requires an international response that goes beyond the mandate or capacity of any single agency and/or the on-going United Nations country program.
composite warfare commander : An officer to whom the officer in tactical command of a naval task organization may delegate authority to conduct some or all of the offensive and defensive functions of the force. Also called CWC.
compromised: A term applied to classified matter, knowledge of which has, in whole or in part, passed to an unauthorized person or persons, or which has been subject to risk of such passing.
computer network attack: Actions taken through the use of computer networks to disrupt, deny, degrade, or destroy information resident in computers and computer networks, or the computers and networks themselves. Also called CNA. See also ; computer network exploitation; computer network operations.
computer network exploitation: Enabling operations and intelligence collection capabilities conducted through the use of computer networks to gather data from target or adversary automated information systems or networks. Also called CNE. See also computer network attack; ; computer network operations.
computer security: The protection resulting from all measures to deny unauthorized access and exploitation of friendly computer systems. Also called COMPUSEC. See also communications security.
computer simulation: See configuration management; validation; verification.
concentrated warning: the responsibility of warning held by a singular body of analysts, focusing on threat management, whose sole duty and purpose is to communicate and forecast a possible threat. [See also: distributive warning.]
concept of intelligence operations: A verbal or graphic statement, in broad outline, of an intelligence directorate’s assumptions or intent in regard to intelligence support of an operation or series of operations. The concept of intelligence operations, which supports the commander’s concept of operations, is contained in the intelligence annex of operation plans. The concept of intelligence operations is designed to give an overall picture of intelligence support for joint operations. It is included primarily for additional clarity of purpose. See also concept of operations.
concept of operations: A verbal or graphic statement that clearly and concisely expresses what the joint force commander intends to accomplish and how it will be done using available resources. Also called CONOPS.
concept plan: In the context of joint operation planning level 3 planning detail, an operation plan in an abbreviated format that may require considerable expansion or alteration to convert it into a complete operation plan or operation order. Also called CONPLAN. See also operation plan.
configuration management: A discipline applying technical and administrative direction and surveillance to: (1) identify and document the functional and physical characteristics of a configuration item; (2) control changes to those characteristics; and (3) record and report changes to processing and implementation status.
consequence analysis: forecasting the implications of an event or result of an action rather than predicting when the event or action will occur. [See also: consequence management.]
consequence management: Sometimes confused with “crisis management.” “Consequence management comprises those essential services and activities required to manage and mitigate problems resulting from disasters and catastrophes. Such services and activities may include transportation, communications, public works, and engineering, fire fighting, information sharing, mass care, resources support, health and medical services, urban search and rescue, hazardous materials, food and energy.” “Historical analysis of patterns of behavior of CBW terrorists, such as the choice of agent and delivery system, can also help improve the effectiveness of medical countermeasures and other conse quence management [italics added] activities. Although some planning for worst-case scenarios is justified, the types of chemical and biological terrorism against which federal, state, and local planning should be primarily directed are smallto medium-scale attacks. Such a threat assessment is not the stuff of newspaper headlines, but the historical record surely justifies it.” [See also: crisis management.]
contingency response program: Fast reaction transportation procedures intended to provide for priority use of land transportation assets by Department of Defense when required. Also called CORE.
continuity of operations: The degree or state of being continuous in the conduct of functions, tasks, or duties necessary to accomplish a military action or mission in carrying out the national military strategy. Also called COOP. Also related to Continuity of Government or COG – a wartime measure invoked in 2001, suspending the power of the legislative and judicial arms of government over military actions, permitting the Joint Chiefs to bypass normal bureacratics pathways. COOP /COG is currently in effect.
correlates of war theory: according to this approach, national capabilities consist of demographic, industrial, and military characteristics, measured by comparative percentages. These characteristics include total national population; the number of cities with populations of 20,000 or more, the coal-ton equivalent of energy consumption, iron and steel production, military expenditures, and armed forces numbers excluding reserves.
correlation analysis: deciphering whether a relationship exists between two seemingly independent parameters or events. Time-based correlations are of fundamental importance when building a threat scenario.
counterdeception: Efforts to negate, neutralize, diminish the effects of, or gain advantage from a foreign deception operation. Counterdeception does not include the intelligence function of identifying foreign deception operations.
counterespionage: That aspect of counterintelligence designed to detect, destroy, neutralize, exploit, or prevent espionage activities through identification, penetration, manipulation, deception, and repression of individuals, groups, or organizations conducting or suspected of conducting espionage activities.
counterintelligence activities: passive (personnel and property security activities) and active (counter subversion of counterespionage) defense efforts against foreign intelligence activities. One or more of the five functions of counterintelligence: operations, investigations, collection, analysis and production, and functional services. See also analysis and production; collection; counterintelligence; operation.
counterintelligence collection: The systematic acquisition of information (through investigations, operations, or liaison) concerning espionage, sabotage, terrorism, other intelligence activities or assassinations conducted by or on behalf of foreign governments or elements thereof, foreign organizations, or foreign persons that are directed against or threaten Department of Defense interests. See also counterintelligence activities.
counterintelligence production: The process of analyzing all-source information concerning espionage or other multidiscipline intelligence collection threats, sabotage, terrorism, and other related threats to US military commanders, the Department of Defense, and the US Intelligence Community and developing it into a final product that is disseminated. Counterintelligence production is used in formulating security policy, plans, and operations. See also counterintelligence.
counterintelligence support: Conducting counterintelligence activities to protect against espionage and other foreign intelligence activities, sabotage, international terrorist activities, or assassinations conducted for or on behalf of foreign powers, organizations, or persons. See also counterintelligence.
counterintelligence operational tasking authority: The levying of counterintelligence requirements specific to joint military activities and operations. Counterintelligence operational tasking authority is exercised through supporting components. Also called CIOTA. See also counterintelligence.
coup de main: An offensive operation that capitalizes on surprise and simultaneous execution of supporting operations to achieve success in one swift stroke.
covert operation: An operation that is so planned and executed as to conceal the identity of or permit plausible denial by the sponsor. See also clandestine operation; overt operation.
creeping normalcy: the methodical increment of a country’s military capability so that its more capable posture is unnoticeable and accepted over time by outside observers.
critical indicator(s) (also known as key indicators): represent those actions or decisions that will immediately and directly affect a threat scenario; constitute a small portion of the overall number of indicators which can easily be monitored. “Detection of excessive ammunition production and export would be a critical indicator of impending armed conflict, since no military operation can succeed without adequate ammunition supplies, despite adequate numbers of weapons.”22
critical intelligence: intelligence that requires immediate attention by a commander or policymaker and which may enhance or refute previously held beliefs about hostilities or actions, leading to a change of policy.
critical intelligence message (also known as CRITIC): information about a situation that so critically affects the security interests of a country or its allies that it may require the immediate attention of the government’s highest official.
cry-wolf syndrome or crying wolf: the desensitization of observers after previous warnings have been issued without threatening consequences. “In 1968, CIA analyst Hovey’s bull’s-eye analysis of North Vietnam’s ability to strike at U.S. troops had made the rounds among the CIA’s top brass and it was even dispatched to the White House, where President Johnson read it 15 days before the attack. However, a note from George Carver, a top CIA official, shot down Hovey’s warning. Carver said Hovey was crying wolf [italics added].” [See also: alert fatigue.]
current indications: activities relating to information, in varying degrees of evaluation, which bear on the intention of a potentially hostile force to adopt or reject a course of action; or which bear on an impending crisis.
current intelligence: intelligence information of all types and forms concerning events of immediate interest characteristically focusing on descriptive snapshots of generally static conditions; highly perishable information covering events that is disseminated without delay and lacks complete evaluation, interpretation, analysis, or integration. The fall of the Shah in Iran (1978) is a classic case of intelligence warning with current intelligence. CIA and State Department daily reports, the primary vehicles for political intelligence, consistently failed to draw Washington’s attention to Iran in the early spring and summer of 1978, following the worst rioting in a decade. Early identification of factors such as the Shah’s vulnerability and mounting dissidence could have prevented the crisis that evolved between the two countries. [See also: near-real time; .]
current operational intelligence: intelligence required for final planning and execution of all operations; especially important to military commanders in executing a tactical operation.
cyber counterintelligence: Measures to identify, penetrate, or neutralize foreign operations that use cyber means as the primary tradecraft methodology, as well as foreign intelligence service collection efforts that use traditional methods to gauge cyber capabilities and intentions. See also counterintelligence.
cyberspace operations: The employment of internet capabilities where the primary purpose is to achieve military and intelligence objectives in or through use of the internet and internet assets.
daily intelligence summary (DINSUM): a report that has daily analysis of possible crisis situations and a summary of relevant intelligence information that was disseminated within the past 24 hours
decapitation strike: a planned attack on key government buildings and installations with the purpose of rendering useless the command and control functions of enemy forces. It is this type of strike that intensifies the element of a surprise attack by enhancing the notion of a “leaderless victim.” The concept of “decapitation” refers to the metaphor of separating the “head from the body” and is similar to the “removal of the Intelligence Community and senior leadership from the warfighter. “A clandestine nuclear detonation in the city [Washington, DC] would likely doom the U.S. president, the vice president, Cabinet members, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and members of Congress who were there at the time. The chaos that such an attack would cause would be difficult to overstate. One of the more difficult questions to answer in the hours after such a [nuclear, biological and chemical terrorist] decapitation attack would be ‘who is in charge here?’ This chaos would be compounded if the headquarters housing the U.S. regional CINC [Commander-In-Chief] and his staff also were to suffer a similar decapitation strike at the same time. It is possible that the national leadership and the regional military forces of the United States would be plunged into chaos for some time.”
decentralized control: In covert operations, the normal mode whereby a higher echelon monitors unit actions, making direct target assignments to units only when necessary to ensure proper fire distribution or to prevent engagement of friendly assets. See also centralized control.
deception: the practice of employing various ruses to disguise real intentions and true capabilities. Commonly known as having the ability to provide misleading or false information in order to achieve the element of surprise; however, there is more to deception than that which meets the eye. For example, it is those measures designed to mislead by manipulation, distortion, or falsification of evidence to induce a reaction that is prejudicial to the victim’s own interest. There are three main reasons to conduct deception. One type of deception attempts to misdirect the enemy’s attention, causing him to concentrate his forces in the wrong place. By doing this, the deceiver tries to make his adversary violate the principle of concentration of forces. An example would be the Allied deception plans that diverted German attention from the beaches of Normandy to Norway and Pas de Calais as possible landing sites for an Allied invasion. A second type of deception makes the adversary violate the so-called principle of economy of force, which causes the opponent to waste resources. An example of this would be any artificial radar signal that draws enemy firepower and attention such as when during World War II the British led the Germans to attack non-existent airfields and factories by setting up phony targets and interfering with German electronic navigation aids. Finally, a third type of deception is designed to surprise an opponent by creating a situation that will later catch him off-guard and unprepared for action with it occurs. Hitler’s policy toward Russia until the eve of his attack on the country (BARBAROSSA) in June 1941 would be a perfect example. It should also be noted that this third type of deception is also related to the two mentioned earlier.26 [See also: A-type deception; active deception; passive deception; denial.]
deception concept: The deception course of action forwarded to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff for review as part of the combatant commander’s strategic concept.
deception event: A deception means executed at a specific time and location in support of a deception operation.
deception means: Methods, resources, and techniques that can be used to convey information to the deception target. There are three categories of deception means: a. physical means. Activities and resources used to convey or deny selected information to a foreign power. b. technical means. Military material resources and their associated operating techniques used to convey or deny selected information to a foreign power. c. administrative means. Resources, methods, and techniques to convey or deny oral, pictorial, documentary, or other physical evidence to a foreign power.
deception objective: The desired result of a deception operation expressed in terms of what the adversary is to do or not to do at the critical time and/or location.
deception story: A scenario that outlines the friendly actions that will be portrayed to cause the deception target to adopt the desired perception.
deception target: The adversary decision maker with the authority to make the decision that will achieve the deception objective.
defense automated warning system (DAWS): the only automated software package used within the U.S. Department of Defense Indications and Warning System to monitor, produce, and record I&W database message traffic. It automatically updates I&W matrix/ status boards and historically files electronic messages by I&W report type, permitting rapid recovery of I&W data. DAWS also has an integrated message handling capability and a message generation template package.
Defense Intelligence Agency: “The Defense Intelligence Agency issues a number of periodic and special warning reports designed to give guidance on threats to the U.S. commands around the world. The Weekly Intelligence Forecast and the Weekly Warning Forecast Report include assessments from the various commands. The Quarterly Warning Forecast reviews a broad range of potential developments that could have an impact on U.S. security interests. In addition, DIA and the Unified Commands, as members of the Defense I&W system, publish two ad hoc products as issues arise: the Warning Report is an assessment of a specific warning issue; the Watch Condition Change is a notification of a change-either up or down-in the threat level presented by a specific warning problem. The Warning Report is the vehicle by which the Department of Defense’s indications and warning system communicates warning intelligence that is worthy of the immediate, specific attention of senior U.S. officials within the Washington area.”
Defense Information Systems Network: Integrated network, centrally managed and configured to provide long-haul information transfer services for all Department of Defense activities. It is an information transfer utility designed to provide dedicated point-to-point, switched voice and data, imagery, and video teleconferencing services. Also called DISN.
Defense Satellite Communications System: Geosynchronous military communications satellites that provide high data rate communications for military forces, diplomatic corps, and the White House. The Defense Satellite Communications System provides long-haul super-high frequency 7/8 gigahertz voice and high data rate communications for fixed and transportable terminals, and extends mobile service to a limited number of ships and aircraft. Also called DSCS.
Department of Defense components — The Office of the Secretary of Defense, the Military Departments, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the combatant commands, the Office of the Inspector General of the Department of Defense, the Department of Defense agencies, field activities, and all other organizational entities in the Department of Defense.
Department of Defense intelligence production: The integration, evaluation, analysis, and interpretation of information from single or multiple sources into finished intelligence for known or anticipated military and related national security consumer requirements.
desired perception: In military deception, what the deception target must believe for it to make the decision that will achieve the deception objective.
directed energy: An umbrella term covering technologies that relate to the production of a beam of concentrated electromagnetic energy or atomic or subatomic particles. Also called DE. See also directed-energy device; directed-energy weapon.
directed-energy device: A system using directed energy primarily for a purpose other than as a weapon. See also directed energy; directed-energy weapon.
directed-energy warfare: Military action involving the use of directed-energy weapons, devices, and countermeasures. Also called DEW. See also directed energy; directed-energy device; directed-energy weapon; electronic warfare.
directed-energy weapon: A weapon or system that uses directed energy to incapacitate, damage, or destroy enemy equipment, facilities, and/or personnel. See also directed energy; directed-energy device.
Delphi method: “[A method] designed to deal with cases where several experts are available to contribute and pool their opinions on some particular issue. First used in the early 1950’s by the RAND Corporation for military estimation problems. Depending on the complexity of the subject matter, ten to fifty experts/specialists are required. A questionnaire (or interview) is prepared asking for the probability of occurrences of certain events (such as technological breakthroughs by a certain date—or alternatively, for the date by which the occurrence is judged to have a given probability, or even for an entire probability distribution over time.)
Round 1: A first set of estimated answers is solicited. Sometimes the respondents are asked to select only the questions about which they consider themselves especially competent. Alternatively, answers to all questions may be requested, accompanied by a selfrating of relative competence for each question.
Round 2: The participants are then provided with the Round 1 response distribution which is usually presented in terms of the median and the first and third quartiles. And new, possibly revised, responses are solicited.
Round 3: The resulting response distribution is fed back, together with a summary of the argument, defending relatively deviant responses. Again, the participants are asked for reestimates.
Round 4: Again, the new response distribution and a summary of the counter arguments are fed back, and a final set of answers is issued based on due considerations of all arguments and counter-arguments that were presented.
The medians of the responses of this final round are then accepted as the group’s position, representing the nearest thing to a consensus that is attainable. A report on the outcome usually also includes an indication of the residual spread of opinions, as well as of minority arguments in defense of deviant opinions, particularly in cases where sizeable dissent remains.”
demonstration: activity to divert a victim’s strength and attention from the real or primary operation; to fix the enemy’s local forces by actual combat, hopefully drawing forces into irrelevant battle. [See also: diversion; fabrication, feint; .]
disaster alert: the period from the issuing of a public warning of an imminent disaster to its actual impact. The period during which pre-impact precautionary or disaster containment measures are conducted.
disaster preparedness: measures that ensure the readiness and ability of a society to forecast and take precautionary measures in advance of an imminent threat and respond to and cope with the effects of a disaster by organizing and delivering timely and effective rescue, relief, and other appropriate post-disaster assistance.
disaster prevention: originally defined as “measures designed to prevent natural phenomena from causing or resulting in disaster or other emergency situations.” The term has now been largely replaced by “mitigation” in the recognition that few disasters can be prevented definitively.
disaster relief: the provision of external relief supplies and services, which assists a state to meet the immediate needs of those affected by a disaster.
disaster response: a sum of decisions and actions taken during and after disaster, including immediate relief, rehabilitation, and reconstruction.
disaster team: multidisciplinary, multi-sectorial group of persons qualified to evaluate a disaster and to bring the necessary relief.
distant early warning (also known as the “DEW line”): a radar network constructed by the United States and Canada to ensure a four-hour warning of a Soviet air attack.
disinformation: false and irrelevant information made available to deceive. “Iraq’s disinformation charges usually originate in their media and have been widely and often uncritically repeated by sympathetic media in Yemen, Algeria, Tunisia, Jordan, and, to a lesser extent, media in Pakistan, Morocco, Mauritania, Bangladesh, and other countries. Iraqi disinformation is often picked up and disseminated by otherwise responsible news media that fail to verify a story’s source or facts. Iraqi ambassadors and embassy spokesmen have also made blatant disinformation claims in media appearances worldwide. Disinformation is a cheap, crude, and often very effective way to inflame public opinion and affect attitudes. It involves the deliberate production and dissemination of falsehoods by a government for a political purpose. Disinformation differs fundamentally from misinformation—unintentionalerrors which occur when facts are unclear and deadline pressures are urgent—in its clearly misleading and propagandistic purposes. Iraq’s disinformation strategy is predictable. Its leaders have tried to make it appear that: Iraq is strong and the multinational coalition is weak; Israel is part of the multinational coalition; Allied Forces are committing crimes against Islam and atrocities in general; the United States is at odds with various countries in the coalition.”
distributive warning: the process of warning, emanating from several analysts or agencies, whose focus may overlap, and whose duties may have other purposes than to communicate and forecast a possible threat. [See also: concentrated warning.]
diversion: an act perpetrated for the purpose of turning attention or interest from a given area. Two modes of diversion are feints and demonstrations. [See also: demonstration, fabrication and feints.]
domestic intelligence: Intelligence relating to activities or conditions within the United States that threaten internal security and that might require the employment of troops; and intelligence relating to activities of individuals or agencies potentially or actually dangerous to the security of the Department of Defense.
double blind: slang term that usually refers to a condition to describe an analyst who purposely skews information or intelligence to support an already-held contention or perspective, to further advance a theory or scenario. [See also: clientitis.]
double agent: Agent in contact with two opposing intelligence services, only one of which is aware of the double contact or quasi-intelligence services. Also called DA.
drivers (also known as key variables): uncertain factors that analysts judge most likely to determine the outcome of a complex situation. “Late last year the NIC published a report called Global Trends 2015 which presented the results of close collaboration between U.S. government specialists and a wide range of experts outside the government, on our best judgments of major drivers and trends that will shape the world of 2015.”
dynamic threat assessment: An intelligence assessment developed by the Defense Intelligence Agency that details the threat, capabilities, and intentions of adversaries in each of the priority plans in the Contingency Planning Guidance. Also called DTA.
electro-explosive device: An explosive or pyrotechnic component that initiates an explosive, burning, electrical, or mechanical train and is activated by the application of electrical energy. Includes Thermite and related chemicals. Also called EED.
electromagnetic battle management: The dynamic monitoring, assessing, planning, and directing of joint electromagnetic spectrum operations in support of the commander’s scheme of maneuver. Also called EMBM.
electromagnetic compatibility: The ability of systems, equipment, and devices that use the electromagnetic spectrum to operate in their intended environments without causing or suffering unacceptable or unintentional degradation because of electromagnetic radiation or response. Also called EMC. See also electromagnetic spectrum; electromagnetic spectrum management; electronic warfare.
electromagnetic environment: The resulting product of the power and time distribution, in various frequency ranges, of the radiated or conducted electromagnetic emission levels encountered by a military force, system, or platform when performing its assigned mission in its intended operational environment. Also called EME.
electromagnetic environmental effects: The impact of the electromagnetic environment upon the operational capability of military forces, equipment, systems, and platforms. Also called E3.
electromagnetic hardening: Action taken to protect personnel, facilities, and/or equipment by blanking, filtering, attenuating, grounding, bonding, and/or shielding against undesirable effects of electromagnetic energy. See also electronic warfare.
electromagnetic interference: Any electromagnetic disturbance, induced intentionally or unintentionally, that interrupts, obstructs, or otherwise degrades or limits the effective performance of electronics and electrical equipment. Also called EMI.
electromagnetic intrusion: The intentional insertion of electromagnetic energy into transmission paths in any manner, with the objective of deceiving operators or of causing confusion. See also electronic warfare.
electromagnetic jamming: The deliberate radiation, reradiation, or reflection of electromagnetic energy for the purpose of preventing or reducing an enemy’s effective use of the electromagnetic spectrum, and with the intent of degrading or neutralizing the enemy’s combat capability. See also electromagnetic spectrum; electromagnetic spectrum management; electronic warfare.
electromagnetic pulse: The electromagnetic radiation from a strong electronic pulse, most commonly caused by a nuclear explosion that may couple with electrical or electronic systems to produce damaging current and voltage surges. Also called EMP. See also electromagnetic radiation.
electromagnetic radiation: Radiation made up of oscillating electric and magnetic fields and propagated with the speed of light. Includes gamma radiation, X-rays, ultraviolet, visible, and infrared radiation, and radar and radio waves.
electromagnetic radiation hazards: Transmitter or antenna installation that generates or increases electromagnetic radiation in the vicinity of ordnance, personnel, or fueling operations in excess of established safe levels. Also called EMR hazards or RADHAZ.
electromagnetic spectrum: The range of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation from zero to infinity. It is divided into 26 alphabetically designated bands. See also electronic warfare.
electromagnetic spectrum control: The coordinated execution of joint electromagnetic spectrum operations with other lethal and nonlethal operations that enable freedom of action in the electromagnetic operational environment. Also called EMSC
electromagnetic spectrum management: Planning, coordinating, and managing joint use of the electromagnetic spectrum through operational, engineering, and administrative procedures. The objective of spectrum management is to enable electronic systems to perform their functions in the intended environment without causing or suffering unacceptable interference. See also electromagnetic spectrum.
electromagnetic vulnerability: The characteristics of a system that cause it to suffer a definite degradation (incapability to perform the designated mission) as a result of having been subjected to a certain level of electromagnetic environmental effects. Also called EMV
electronic attack: Division of electronic warfare involving the use of electromagnetic energy, directed energy, or antiradiation weapons to attack personnel, facilities, or equipment with the intent of degrading, neutralizing, or destroying enemy combat capability and is considered a form of fires. Also called EA. See also electronic protection; electronic warfare; electronic warfare support.
electronic imagery dissemination: The transmission of imagery or imagery products by any electronic means. This includes the following four categories. a. primary imagery dissemination system — The equipment and procedures used in the electronic transmission and receipt of un-exploited original or near-original quality imagery in near real time. b. primary imagery dissemination — The electronic transmission and receipt of unexploited original or near-original quality imagery in near real time through a primary imagery dissemination system. c. secondary imagery dissemination — The electronic transmission and receipt of exploited non-original quality imagery and imagery products in other than real or near real time through a secondary imagery dissemination system.
electronic intelligence: Technical and geolocation intelligence derived from foreign noncommunications electromagnetic radiations emanating from other than nuclear detonations or radioactive sources. Also called ELINT. See also electronic warfare; foreign instrumentation signals intelligence; intelligence; signals intelligence.
electronic line of sight: The path traversed by electromagnetic waves that is not subject to reflection or refraction by the atmosphere.
electronic masking: The controlled radiation of electromagnetic energy on friendly frequencies in a manner to protect the emissions of friendly communications and electronic systems against enemy electronic warfare support measures/signals intelligence without significantly degrading the operation of friendly systems.
electronic probing: Intentional radiation designed to be introduced into the devices or systems of potential enemies for the purpose of learning the functions and operational capabilities of the devices or systems.
electronic protection: Division of electronic warfare involving actions taken to protect personnel, facilities, and equipment from any effects of friendly or enemy use of the electromagnetic spectrum that degrade, neutralize, or destroy friendly combat capability. Also called EP. See also electronic attack, electronic warfare; electronic warfare support
electronic reconnaissance: The detection, location, identification, and evaluation of foreign electromagnetic radiations. See also electromagnetic radiation.
electronics security: The protection resulting from all measures designed to deny unauthorized persons information of value that might be derived from their interception and study of noncommunications electromagnetic radiations, e.g., radar. (JP 3-13.1)
electronic warfare frequency deconfliction: Actions taken to integrate those frequencies used by electronic warfare systems into the overall frequency deconfliction process. See also electronic warfare.
electronic warfare reprogramming: The deliberate alteration or modification of electronic warfare or target sensing systems, or the tactics and procedures that employ them, in response to validated changes in equipment, tactics, or the electromagnetic environment. See also electronic warfare.
electronic warfare support: Division of electronic warfare involving actions tasked by, or under direct control of, an operational commander to search for, intercept, identify, and locate or localize sources of intentional and unintentional radiated electromagnetic energy for the purpose of immediate threat recognition, targeting, planning and conduct of future operations. Also called ES. See also electronic attack; electronic protection; electronic warfare
electro-optical-infrared countermeasure: A device or technique employing electro- optical-infrared materials or technology that is intended to impair the effectiveness of enemy activity, particularly with respect to precision guided weapons and sensor systems. Also called EO-IR CM.
electro-optical intelligence: Intelligence other than signals intelligence derived from the optical monitoring of the electromagnetic spectrum from ultraviolet (0.01 micrometers) through far infrared (1,000 micrometers). Also called ELECTRO-OPTINT. See also intelligence; laser intelligence.
elicitation (intelligence): Acquisition of information from a person or group in a manner that does not disclose the intent of the interview or conversation. A technique of human source intelligence collection, generally overt, unless the collector is other than he or she purports to be. (JP 2-01.2)
emergency operations center: officially designated facility for the direction and coordination of all activities during the response phase of a disaster.
emergency response: the action taken immediately following a disaster warning or alert to minimize or contain the eventual negative effects, and those actions taken to save and preserve lives and provide basic services in the immediate aftermath of a disaster, and for as long as an emergency situation prevails.
emergency measures of military preparedness: additional efforts undertaken to buttress the basic measures of readiness, usually in response to strategic warning, to counter a massive attack. [See also: basic measures of military preparedness.]
espionage: The act of obtaining, delivering, transmitting, communicating, or receiving information about the national defense with an intent, or reason to believe, that the information may be used to the injury of the United States or to the advantage of any foreign nation. Espionage is a violation of Title 18 United States Code, Sections 792- 798 and Article 106, Uniform Code of Military Justice. See also counterintelligence.
estimative intelligence: a type of intelligence that projects or forecasts potential foreign courses of action and developments and discusses their implications for the host nation or its allies; predictive judgment on a possible course of action by a potential enemy in any area of interest to decisionmakers (such as weapons development, weapons employment strategies, overall military tactics and polices, economic capacities, and the like); an appraisal of the capabilities, vulnerabilities, and potential courses of action of a foreign nation or combination of nations in consequence of a specific national plan, policy, decision, or contemplated course of action.
evaluation agent: The command or agency designated in the evaluation directive to be responsible for the planning, coordination, and conduct of the required evaluation of a joint test publication. Also called EA.
exceptional theory: projecting an adversary’s behavior based heavily on explanations of the past in specific incidents, where unusual possibilities may turn out to be relevant; assuming deviance of behavior rather than continuity.42 [See also: normal theory.]
exercise: A military maneuver or simulated wartime operation involving planning, preparation, and execution that is carried out for the purpose of training and evaluation. See also maneuver.
fabrication: a deceptive practice of creating a totally unreal event or situation. [See also: demonstration; diversion; feint.]
feint: an act intended to divert a victim’s attention from the main target of an attack by contriving a mock attack where actual combat is not intended; in other words, simulating a buildup for an imminent attack. During World War II, General Eisenhower’s headquarters developed a feint, codenamed FORTITUDE, to distract German attention from the real landing area in Normandy. Allied radio messages were broadcast in such a way as to divert attention from the south of England to a spoof headquarters in Scotland. “A very busy signals staff contrived, by sending out the right sort of dummy wireless traffic, to assemble a fictitious 4th Army in Scotland. The “wireless training” of this army contained some purposeful indiscretions. By these furtive, impressionistic and devious indiscretions, FORTITUDE sought to let the Germans convince themselves of what they had always wanted to believe anyway — that the invaders would pour across the Channel at the narrowest point, from Dover to the Pas de Calais; the build-up in Scotland itself suggested a preliminary feint-like assault on southern Norway. In fact, so conclusive did the evidence seem to be that more than a month after the invasion in Normandy, Hitler declared that ‘the enemy will probably attempt a second landing in the 15th Army sector’ — the zone of the Pas de Calais.”43 [See also: deception; demonstration; diversion; fabrication.]
fig leaf: an event or activity of seemingly minor consequence used for the justification of a larger or more important and significant action; often used as an excuse. “He [Secretary of State Dean Rusk] said he felt we might be confronted by serious uprisings all over Latin America if U.S. forces were to go in, not to mention the temptation that the commitment of such forces in Cuba would provide elsewhere in the world. In this connection he again mentioned the possibility of a physical base on the Isle of Pines for a provisional government that we could recognize. This he thought would be a powerful step forward. What we needed was a ‘fig leaf.’ A Cuban provisional government on the Isle of Pines, for example, could sink Soviet ships carrying supplies to Castro with less danger than would be the case with direct involvement of U.S. forces.”
flame field expedients: Simple, handmade devices used to produce flame or illumination. Also called FFE.
forward-looking infrared: An airborne, electro-optical thermal imaging device that detects far-infrared energy, converts the energy into an electronic signal, and provides a visible image for day or night viewing. Also called FLIR.
forecast: this term should not be confused with prediction. Whereas predictions assert the occurrence of some event with certainty (“insurgents will capture the city next year”), a forecast is a probabilistic statement (“there is a 3-1 chance that the insurgents will capture the city next year”). A prediction may be viewed as a limiting case of a forecast, where the assigned probability reaches the level of certainty; however, forecasts very rarely take the form of predictions. Also, forecasts may refer either to events or to trends, and these changes must be verifiable if forecasts are to be operationally meaningful. “This puts a special strain on forecasts in social science areas as opposed to, say, technological forecasts, because the terminology we tend to use (‘risking dissatisfaction,’ ‘détente,’ ‘nationalism’) does not always have the crispness necessary to allow unambiguously verifiable assertions. As a consequence, forecasts, in order to be meaningful, sometimes have to be formulated in terms of certain indicators. If possible, these are social or political indicators whose values are objectively measurable.”45 “[South Korean] Seoul-based banks demand that the government honor the payment guarantee at the earliest date possible, as they have failed to receive the loans from Russia. But analysts forecast that the government payment is unlikely within the year. And the banks may even fail to get the payment by next year, given the protracted negotiations regarding the state budget toward that end. [See also: predication and indicator.]
foreign intelligence entity: Any known or suspected foreign organization, person, or group (public, private, or governmental) that conducts intelligence activities to acquire US information, block or impair US intelligence collection, influence US policy, or disrupts US systems and programs. The term includes foreign intelligence and security services and international terrorists. Also called FIE.